‘Synephrine’, the main active alkaloid in the natural Citrus Aurantium plant, has recently replaced ‘ephedrine’ in several dietary supplements!
Synephrine supports us to accelerate weight loss in several ways. It increases metabolismhence stimulates our body to burn more calories, it triggers the body to burn stubborn fat deposits and it also suppresses our appetite.
We were very strict, in that the Synephrine dose in Burniva needed to be not only effective, but also safe. Like that you can put your mind at rest with regards its safety, whilst it will effectively prompt your body to go into fat burning mode and help you beat those pesky cravings throughout the day!
Moreover there lies a synergistic effect between Synephrine and Caffeine Anhydrous in the Burniva Formula, resulting in a more powerful weight loss outcome than if the two were taken separately!
Citrus aurantium is the botanical name for the citrus plant commonly referred to as Bitter Orange, originating in Southeast Asia. This plant is a source of p-synephrine, biogenic amines as well as other bioactive phytochemicals.
P-Synephrine is the main active ingredient and has been widely used to aid weight loss. It is structurally similar to ephedrine, but whereas ephedrine has been banned for its health risks especially cardiovascular ones, synephrine is milder in action, has less adverse events and hence safer to use.
So far a number of p-synephrine studies on human subjects and also in animals, observed a lack of cardiovascular effects, when administered orally. If of interest to you, you can find these studies summarized here and here. For this reason synephrine has replaced ephedrine in several dietary supplements.
How Synephrine Causes Weight Loss
In a study at Georgetown University Medical Center, USA in 2002, women that were given citrus aurantium lost an average of 1.5kg more in a week of strict dieting and exercise, than they did following the same routine the week before without the citrus aurantium.
In line with this, in this review, synephrine has been shown to bring about weight loss through the following 3 mechanisms of action.
1. An Increase In Metabolic Rate After Synephrine Intake The resting metabolic rate is the amount of energy the body requires during the day to perform basic function, when no form of exercise is added. This makes up a large portion of our daily energy expenditure ranging between 60% to 75%, i.e. the amount of calories that we burn daily are used up for these bodily processes. Hence the higher the resting metabolic rate the more calories are burned by the body. This review paper lists several studies that observed a significant increase in resting metabolic rate after synephrine intake.
Indeed, in one such study an increase of 6.9% in resting metabolic rate after synephrine intake, was recorded. A 50mg dose of synephrine resulted in an extra 65 calories burned when compared to placebo subjects over a period of 75 minutes.
The effect of Burniva Supplements is obviously more potent than this – the combination of synephrine with other ingredients in the Burniva Formula brings about a synergistic effect between the ingredients resulting in a much higher calorie burn.
2. Fat Burning Properties Of Synephrine – Lipolysis & Fat Oxidation Synephrine can also help weight loss due to its fat burning properties. The mechanisms involved in these processes are rather complex. We will try to simplify this to help you understand better the fat burning properties of synephrine in Burniva Supplements.
Lipolysis is the mechanism by which our body breaks down the fats stored in fat cells, into fatty acids and glycerol. Lipolysis normally takes place during rigorous exercise, and is triggered by hormones such as adrenaline. Fat mobilization is the transport of these fatty acids from the fat cells to the muscle, whilst fat oxidation is the next step in the fat burning process, which eventually turns these fatty acids into energy.
Interestingly enough in a very recent study conducted in 2016, lipolysis was detected primarily during rest periods (that is when no exercise was performed) after p-synephrine supplement intake. Hence p-synephrine was observed to initiate the breakdown of fats even when we are at rest.
Moreover in this same study, the same subjects who had taken p-synephrine showed an increased fat oxidation when compared to placebo, after 30 minutes of resistance training (weight training). Overall, this shows that synephrine is involved in fat burning processes both at rest and whilst exercising.
This highlights an important aspect, since not everyone is willing to do exercise to lose weight. Exercise is still a very important component in a weight loss plan, but knowing that synephrine combats fat whilst our body is at rest is an added bonus!
3. Synephrine & Its Involvement In Appetite Suppression Another way by which synephrine can potentially influence weight loss is by suppressing appetite. Very few studies have been conducted on this issue, however synephrine’s involvement in catecholamines’ activity, makes it highly possible. In a study conducted in rats, the combination of Citrus aurantium with Rhodiola rosea (another botanical extract) was found to significantly suppress appetite by 10%. This is not enough to warrant its involvement however, yet it is compelling to note that many synephrine users seem to validate its effectiveness at reducing appetite.
Synephrine Safety In Burniva Supplements
We were very strict, in that the Burniva formula needed to be not only effective, but also safe. Given the structural similarities of synephrine and ephedrine, concerns about this ingredient having the same side effects were various. Moreover there seems to have been a lot of confusion between the different synephrine isomers. In fact, uncertainty with regards synephrine’s safety stemmed mainly from scientific communities’ inability to differentiate between m-synephrine and p-synephrine as discussed here. The primary alkaloid in Citrus Aurantium is p-synephrine. Some authors however believe that traces of m-synephrine (an alkaloid found to exhibit some effects on the cardiovascular system) are also present in this plant, while others repeatedly claimed that this alkaloid does not occur naturally in this citrus plant (for more on this read more in this review and this review too). There is no published date up to date to confirm who is correct. What we know for sure however, is that a number of studies on citrus aurantium and p-synephrine failed to find any serious adverse cardiovascular or blood pressure effects.
Each Burniva tablet contains 24mg of synephrine, hence if two tablets are taken, one in the morning and one in mid-afternoon as instructed, this will amount to 48mg per day. However given the half life of synephrine is that of two to three hours (illustrated in this study), taking the tablets several hours apart will ensure the amount of synephrine in the body is always kept within safe yet effective parameters. Research studies have shown that this dose can be tolerated without any negative side effect. In fact in this study, 50mg of p-synephrine was used and showed no effects on heart rate or blood pressure.
Nevertheless, to be on the safe side it is best to consult your doctor if you have any cardiovascular or blood pressure concerns before taking Burniva. Also, it would be best to seek a doctor’s approval if you are currently taking prescription drugs. Synephrine intake at safe dosages has a role in the fat burning industry, however on its own we felt that synephrine was not potent enough to bring about noticeable changes quickly. That is why the Burniva Formula was specifically formulated to include two other potent fat burning ingredients besides synephrine: green tea extract and caffeine anhydrous. What is unique about this formula is that the ingredients that make up Burniva, besides having their individual effect, also elicit an even greater weight loss effect, brought about by the synergistic interactions that occur between these ingredients!