Research Behind The Burniva Formula

You would think this is yet another attempt to convince you to buy a fat burning supplement. But we assure you it’s not! In this post we put forward all the hypothesis and processes involved in Citrus Aurantium, Green Tea Extract and Caffeine Anhydrous, the three ingredients used in the Burniva Formula. We did not refrain from mentioning studies that failed to find an effect. We clearly stated what was confirmed and also what was not. When results were inconclusive we made sure we pointed it out. We wanted to be objective, because there is no point in being deceptive when all the information could be found online anyhow. We want you to feel knowledgeable about the product, whilst sparing you the hassle to do all the research yourself. We also included several study links to corroborate what was discussed, in case you needed to read further.

1. Citrus Aurantium (Synephrine)

  • Synephrine’, the main active alkaloid in the natural Citrus Aurantium plant, has recently replaced ‘ephedrine’ in several dietary supplements!
  • Synephrine supports us to accelerate weight loss in several ways. It increases metabolism hence stimulates our body to burn more calories, it triggers the body to burn stubborn fat deposits and it also suppresses our appetite.
  • We were very strict, in that the Synephrine dose in Burniva needed to be not only effective, but also safe. Like that you can put your mind at rest with regards its safety, whilst it will effectively prompt your body to go into fat burning mode and help you beat those pesky cravings throughout the day!
  • Moreover there lies a synergistic effect between Synephrine and Caffeine Anhydrous in the Burniva Formula, resulting in a more powerful weight loss outcome than if the two were taken separately!

Citrus aurantium is the botanical name for the citrus plant commonly referred to as Bitter Orange, originating in Southeast Asia. This plant is a source of p-synephrine, biogenic amines as well as other bioactive phytochemicals. P-Synephrine is the main active ingredient and has been widely used to aid weight loss. It is structurally similar to ephedrine, but whereas ephedrine has been banned for its health risks especially cardiovascular ones, synephrine is milder in action, has less adverse events and hence safer to use. So far a number of p-synephrine studies on human subjects and also in animals, observed a lack of cardiovascular effects, when administered orally. If of interest to you, you can find these studies summarized here and here. For this reason synephrine has replaced ephedrine in several dietary supplements.
In a  study at Georgetown University Medical Center, USA in 2002, women that were given citrus aurantium lost an average of 1.5kg more in a week of strict dieting and exercise, than they did following the same routine the week before without the citrus aurantium. 

In line with this, in this review, synephrine has been shown to bring about weight loss through the following 3 mechanisms of action.

1. An Increase In Metabolic Rate After Synephrine Intake The resting metabolic rate is the amount of energy the body requires during the day to perform basic function, when no form of exercise is added. This makes up a large portion of our daily energy expenditure ranging between 60% to 75%, i.e. the amount of calories that we burn daily are used up for these bodily processes. Hence the higher the resting metabolic rate the more calories are burned by the body. This review paper  lists several studies that observed a significant increase in resting metabolic rate after synephrine intake.

Indeed, in one such study an increase of 6.9% in resting metabolic rate after synephrine intake, was recorded. A 50mg dose of synephrine resulted in an extra 65 calories burned when compared to placebo subjects over a period of 75 minutes.

The effect of Burniva Supplements is obviously more potent than this – the combination of synephrine with other ingredients in the Burniva Formula brings about a synergistic effect between the ingredients resulting in a much higher calorie burn.

2. Fat Burning Properties Of Synephrine - Lipolysis & Fat Oxidation Synephrine can also help weight loss due to its fat burning properties. The mechanisms involved in these processes are rather complex. We will try to simplify this to help you understand better the fat burning properties of synephrine in Burniva Supplements.

Lipolysis is the mechanism by which our body breaks down the fats stored in fat cells, into fatty acids and glycerol. Lipolysis normally takes place during rigorous exercise, and is triggered by hormones such as adrenaline. Fat mobilization is the transport of these fatty acids from the fat cells to the muscle, whilst fat oxidation is the next step in the fat burning process, which eventually turns these fatty acids into energy.

Interestingly enough in a very recent study conducted in 2016, lipolysis was detected primarily during rest periods (that is when no exercise was performed) after p-synephrine supplement intake. Hence p-synephrine was observed to initiate the breakdown of fats even when we are at rest.

Moreover in this same study, the same subjects who had taken p-synephrine showed an increased fat oxidation when compared to placebo, after 30 minutes of resistance training (weight training). Overall, this shows that synephrine is involved in fat burning processes both at rest and whilst exercising.

This highlights an important aspect, since not everyone is willing to do exercise to lose weight. Exercise is still a very important component in a weight loss plan, but knowing that synephrine combats fat whilst our body is at rest is an added bonus!

3. Synephrine & Its Involvement In Appetite Suppression Another way by which synephrine can potentially influence weight loss is by suppressing appetite. Very few studies have been conducted on this issue, however synephrine’s involvement in catecholamines' activity, makes it highly possible. In a study conducted in rats, the combination of Citrus aurantium with Rhodiola rosea (another botanical extract) was found to significantly suppress appetite by 10%. This is not enough to warrant its involvement however, yet it is compelling to note that many synephrine users seem to validate its effectiveness at reducing appetite.
At present, some researchers on this subject believe that very few studies have been conducted on this natural ingredient so far, and that there lies a need for more research. Another issue that complicated this further, is that synephrine is rarely found on its own, but rather combined with other thermogenic ingredients, which makes it very difficult to isolate its benefits (Find studies discussing this, here and here).

What is however not questionable is that there lies a synergistic effect between synephrine and other thermogenic ingredients.
We were very strict, in that the Burniva formula needed to be not only effective, but also safe. Given the structural similarities of synephrine and ephedrine, concerns about this ingredient having the same side effects were various. Moreover there seems to have been a lot of confusion between the different synephrine isomers. In fact, uncertainty with regards synephrine’s safety stemmed mainly from scientific communities’ inability to differentiate between m-synephrine and p-synephrine as discussed here. The primary alkaloid in Citrus Aurantium is p-synephrine. Some authors however believe that traces of m-synephrine (an alkaloid found to exhibit some effects on the cardiovascular system) are also present in this plant, while others repeatedly claimed that this alkaloid does not occur naturally in this citrus plant (for more on this read more in this review and this review too). There is no published date up to date to confirm who is correct. What we know for sure however, is that a number of studies on citrus aurantium and p-synephrine failed to find any serious adverse cardiovascular or blood pressure effects (read more here).

Each Burniva tablet contains 24mg of synephrine, hence if two tablets are taken, one in the morning and one in mid-afternoon as instructed, this will amount to 48mg per day. However given the half life of synephrine is that of two to three hours (illustrated in this study), taking the tablets several hours apart will ensure the amount of synephrine in the body is always kept within safe yet effective parameters. Research studies have shown that this dose can be tolerated without any negative side effect. In fact in this study, 50mg of p-synephrine was used and showed no effects on heart rate or blood pressure. 

Nevertheless, to be on the safe side it is best to consult your doctor if you have any cardiovascular or blood pressure concerns before taking Burniva. Also, it would be best to seek a doctor’s approval if you are currently taking prescription drugs. Synephrine intake at safe dosages has a role in the fat burning industry, however on its own we felt that synephrine was not potent enough to bring about noticeable changes quickly. That is why the Burniva Formula was specifically formulated to include two other potent fat burning ingredients besides synephrine: green tea extract and caffeine anhydrous. What is unique about this formula is that the ingredients that make up Burniva, besides having their individual effect, also elicit an even greater weight loss effect, brought about by the synergistic interactions that occur between these ingredients!

2. Green Tea Extract

  • Green Tea Extract is yet another natural weight loss ingredient prepared from unfermented leaves, containing a high amount of powerful antioxidants.
  • This ingredient has been found to not only burn stubborn body fat, but also to increase energy expenditure, and suppress appetite, amongst other benefits. Yes Green Tea Extract is one fantastic nutrient indeed! With a higher rate of fat burn, and less of an appetite for belly busting fast food, your body can shred pounds to make way for lean muscle.
  • It is mainly the combination of catechins and caffeine found in green tea extract that bring about these positive effects. That is why we made sure that the Green Tea Extract in the Burniva Formula contains 95% catechins, impressive right? This makes it far superior than other GTE supplements on the market, as these usually contain a much lower concentration of around 50%.
  • Moreover, the addition of Caffeine Anhydrous to the Burniva Formula reinforces the energy expenditure brought about by the Green Tea Extract due to the synergy that co-exists between them!

Tea can be categorized in 3 main varieties: green, black & oolong tea. The three are derived from the same plant Camellia sinensis, and the difference between the three lies in the process of fermentation. Green tea is prepared from unfermented leaves and for this reason reports the highest amount of powerful antioxidants when compared to the other types of teas. Antioxidants are believed to fight free radicals, compounds that develop anomalies in the body causing health problems and aging. The antioxidants found in green tea are called polyphenols. 

Polyphenols, are mainly made up of flavanols which are often referred to as catechins. This is why the words ‘polyphenols’ and ‘catechins’ are often interchanged. In this study it was shown that catechins in green tea extract can be further broken down into the following major ones: epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and apigallocatechin gallate (also known as EGCG), with EGCG being the most active one.

Beside polyphenols, green tea also contains caffeine which brings about the stimulant effect reported in green tea.

All these classifications may all sound rather confusing, we know! All you really need to know is that it is mainly the combination of catechins and caffeine found in green tea extract that play a role in weight loss and weight loss management.

For more relevant information regarding the health benefits read the Green Tea Guide by University of Maryland Medical Center.
In Asia, people have known about the potential health benefits of green tea for over a 100 years now. In the western world this link has only been evaluated recently in the last decade or so, and so far studies seem to point towards a positive one!

In a meta-analysis of 11 pubmed articles conducted on human subjects, it was concluded that green tea indeed shows a significant decrease in body weight, and even more importantly, a significantly maintained body weight following a weight loss period was also observed. 

The predominant hypotheses behind weight loss in relation to green tea extract were outlined in the following review. These processes are discussed further below.

1. Thermogenesis & Increased Energy Expenditure After Green Tea Extract Intake Several studies (as illustrated in this review) have concluded that green tea extract has an effect on energy expenditure, with this study showing a 4% increase in energy expenditure, hence 4% more calories burned, in a 24 hour period! It was shown that this change in energy expenditure is the results of green tea extract catechins, rather than the result of its caffeine content per se.

2. Green Tea Extract Fat Burning Properties - Increased Fat Oxidation Fat oxidation as explained above, is a process whereby the body uses fatty acids from fat stores rather than carbohydrates. This process allows us to get rid of stubborn fat deposits in our body, such as belly fat. Mixed results have been obtained with regards this hypothesis, as the underlying mechanism of how this happens is still unclear. It is however likely that fat oxidation effects of GTE may be increased especially during exercise. In fact, in this study involving GTE intake, fat oxidation was shown to increase by a whopping 17% during a moderately intensive session! It therefore seems that this GTE benefit is particularly enjoyed by those willing to do some sort of exercise.

3. Green Tea Extract & Its Effect On Nutrient Absorption Several in vitro and in vivo studies have observed a relationship between GTE and a reduction of glucose (carbohydrates) absorption. In one study, following meals containing green tea extract there was a 25% carbohydrate malabsorption when compared to controls that did not eat meals containing green tea extract. This means that GTE may block some carbohydrates from being absorbed in the intestines after a meal, and instead the body just proceeds to get rid of them. Sounds brilliant, right? Similar hypothesis were proposed for fats in foods, yet data with regards this issue is still inconclusive.

4. Green Tea Extract & Its Involvement In Appetite Suppression Appetite suppression is not something easy to measure. However in rat studies it has been observed that substances known to interact with fat oxidation processes in our body, seem to also reduce appetite. In fact in this study, an 8% (approx 95 calories) reduction in calorie consumption was observed after 500mg GTE intake.

To be completely unbiased, other studies reviewed here, have however failed to show any significant difference. Yet a confounding factor here might be the fact that changes may be very difficult to detect, especially when subjects are expected to self-report their calorie intake.  
As already explained, catechin concentration is a very important feature to consider in green tea extract. To give you an idea, one cup of properly brewed green tea contains approximately 100 mg catechins. Before you hop off to the supermarket for tea bags bear in mind the amounts of green tea extract that you’ll need will be quite high, so that’s a lot of drinking!

Each Burniva tablet contains 500mg green tea extract of which 95% are catechins. This amounts to 1000mg per day if the recommended do

3. Caffeine Anhydrous

  • Caffeine Anhydrous is another natural substance derived from various seeds and leaves of plants. Caffeine’s most popular effect is its ability to increase alertness, helping us keep focused during the day. But there is more to Caffeine than that!
  • Caffeine speeds up our metabolism making our body burn more calories than usual, and it also facilitates the body’s fat burning processes. In addition Caffeine has also been shown to boost our energy levels hence supporting us to a more effective workout, by helping us to move faster, lift more or last longer to build more muscle.
  • The Caffeine boost in Burniva supplements can also be really helpful on days when you need to focus but are feeling low in energy due to lack of sleep, or as a result of the stresses and strains of daily life. Wow that is quite a long list of good news!
  • Burniva tablets were carefully calibrated to contain a specific dose of Caffeine Anhydrous, effective in bringing about such benefits.

Caffeine is a natural substance derived mainly from the seeds, leaves and fruits of various plants. The kola nut, cacao bean, and guarana berry are a few sources of caffeine. Caffeine, in the form of coffee or tea, makes it the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world. 

Caffeine anhydrous, the type of caffeine found in Burniva Supplements is produced from the dehydrated leaves and seeds of these same plants. In fact, 'anhydrous' means without water. This dehydration process produces a more concentrated caffeine powder, making it more potent.
Caffeine elicits multiple mechanisms of actions in our body. For a complete list of caffeine benefits check this recent review published in 2017.

Below we compiled an accurate list of such benefits, especially in relation to alertness and weight loss.

1. Increased Alertness After Caffeine Intake

Increased alertness is probably the most popular benefit of caffeine, since we all experience the caffeine kick after coffee first thing in the morning. 

Caffeine, a purine methylxanthine alkaloid, is structurally similar to adenosine. Because of this similarity, several researchers (one study here) believe that caffeine can bind to adenosine receptors. As a result, the receptors are unable to detect adenosine, and this in turn stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenaline, and indirectly the release of dopamine as well.

These chemical processes bring about an effect on mental performance, making you feel more alert (in this study), focused and improving your ability to concentrate (read more in this study), whilst reducing feelings of drowsiness. In line with this, in yet another study it was discovered that caffeine can reduce feelings of mental fatigue.  Read more about this study here.

The caffeine boost of Burniva can be really helpful on days when you’re feeling low in energy due to lack of sleep, or just as a result of daily life stresses and strain, pushing you to get through the day.

2. How Caffeine Burns Fats Whilst Improving Exercise Performance & Endurance

But there is more to caffeine than that. Besides its impact on the central nervous system, caffeine has also been found to influence substrate utilization (the source used as energy, ex. carbohydrates or fats) during training. The claim that caffeine acts as an ‘ergogenic aid’ has been well founded, as discussed here. In simpler terms, an ‘ergogenic aid’ is a substance that improves your exercise performance and enhances endurance.

This is achieved through several mechanisms of actions, already mentioned above: ‘lipolysis’, ‘fat oxidation’, and a reduction in muscle glycogen breakdown, are very well documented ones (read more here and here). Following is a brief explanation of how this works.

In general, during exercise our body first utilizes the glycogen (carbohydrate) stores and then moves on to start breaking down fat for more energy. Once the muscle glycogen gets used up however, the feeling of exhaustion kicks in. After a significant dose of caffeine intake, a delay in glycogen depletion has been noticed (as shown in this study). This in turn delays feelings of exhaustion, hence making you go on for longer. Instead of using glycogen (carbohydrates) for energy, the body is stimulated to use fatty acids from stubborn body fat deposits instead! ‘Lipolysis’ and ‘fat oxidation’ involve a cascade of chemical reactions that eventually produce energy by breaking down this stored fat, hence the fat burning properties of caffeine. This is essentially what improves your workout performance and what makes you work out for longer. 

A 2015 study by the University of Alcalá in Spain observed a team of volleyball players after they had consumed caffeine, and concluded that their accuracy of shots across the net, their reactions and their overall physical performance was significantly higher than without caffeine.

This is how caffeine in Burniva Supplements will improve the quality of your workout performance by supporting you to a more intensive and longer workout. Subsequently, Burniva will help you burn more calories since it pushes you to move faster, lift more, or last longer during your workout. In turn, a greater amount of lean muscle in your body will help you to burn more calories day after day.

3. Caffeine’s Involvement In Appetite Suppression

Caffeine is also believed to help suppress appetite or prolong feelings of satiety. However as discussed in this review, a few studies seem to have failed to report a relationship, and more studies are required to confirm this causation. 

 4. Caffeine’s Effect On Thermogenesis & Metabolism

That is not all! Caffeine has also been found to potentiate a thermogenic effect as shown in this study, which in turn burns more calories.  Thermogenesis is the process of generating heat in our bodies. Calories are used up in this heat production process - the more heat or energy produced, the more calories are used up. The process whereby caffeine increases thermogenesis is still unknown, however.

In relation to this, numerous studies such as this one, have confirmed that caffeine has an effect on the resting metabolic rate, whereby it speeds up your metabolism, thus making you burn more calories during the day. This is another way how Burniva succeeds at increasing your energy expenditure, hence making sure the body uses more calories over time.  
In order to get such benefits from caffeine, one needs to take a higher dose than what can be achieved from a normal cup of coffee. 

In a review analysis regarding necessary caffeine dose to bring about such effects, it was concluded that 3 to 6mg per kilogram of body weight was enough.  It is also interesting to note that in this review it was stated that higher doses of 9mg and above, per kilogram of bodyweight, will not increase performance further, so there is no benefit in taking more caffeine than the stated dose.  One single Burniva tablet contains 200mg of caffeine anhydrous, hence if taken as instructed, one tablet in the morning and one mid-afternoon, this will make up a dose of 400mg, making it an effective daily dose to bring about the above mentioned caffeine benefits. In fact in this scientific opinion paper by the European Food Safety Opinion it was concluded that 400mg of caffeine “do not raise safety concerns for adults in the general population, except pregnant women.”

Moreover with regards the type of caffeine used, this same review confirmed that the anhydrous state of caffeine, just like the one used in Burniva Supplements, is more effective than normal coffee.

Again, before you stock up on coffee granules, be mindful that caffeine is a fairly powerful substance; it’s important to regulate the amount that you take. Coffee beans, granules and filter coffee powders come in many strengths and what one brand calls medium may be strong to the other. If you’d ever had a few too many black coffees you’ll know why it’s good to regulate your caffeine intake given its effect on blood pressure and heart rate. Hence getting caffeine from a supplement and knowing exactly how much you are taking, is much more sensible than taking a gamble on granules.